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SOLAR PHYSICS PARAMETERS24

Parameter

Symbol

Value

Units

Total mass

 

1.99 X 1033

g

Radius

 

Rq

6.96 X IO10

cm

Surface gravity

 

9Q

2.74 x 104

cm s~2

Escape speed

 

Voo

6

.18 x 107

cm s_1

Upward mass flux in spicules

 

--------

1.6 x IO-9

gem-2 s_1

Vertically integrated atmospheric density

--------

 

4.28

g cm-2

Sunspot magnetic field strength

 

■^max

2500-3500

G

Surface effective temperature

 

T0

 

5770

K

Radiant power

 

£Q

3.83 x 1033

erg s-1

Radiant flux density

 

T

6.28 X 1010

erg cm"2s_1

Optical depth at 500 nm, measured

 

T5

 

0.99

from photosphere

 

 

 

 

 

Astronomical unit (radius of earth's orbit)

AU

1.50 x 1013

cm

Solar constant (intensity at 1 AU)

 

f

1.36 x 106

erg cm-2 s_1

Chromosphere and Corona25

Parameter (Units)

 

Quiet

 

Coronal

Active

 

Sun

 

Hole

Region

Chromospheric radiation losses

 

 

 

 

 

(erg cm-2 s-1)

 

 

 

 

 

Low chromosphere

2 x 106

 

2 x 106

> io7

Middle chromosphere

2 x 106

 

2 x 106

~io7

Upper chromosphere

3 x 105

 

3 x 105

2 X 106

Total

4 x 106

 

4 x 106

> 2 X 107

Transition layer pressure (dyne cm-2)

 

0.2

 

0.07

2

Coronal temperature (K) at 1.1 Rq

1.1-

1.6 X 10

6

106

2.5 X 106

Coronal energy losses (erg cm-2 s-1)

 

 

 

 

 

Conduction

2 x 105

 

6 x 104

105-107

Radiation

 

105

 

104

5 X 106

Solar Wind

< 

5 X 104

 

7 x 105

< 105

Total

3 x 105

 

8 x 105

107

Solar wind mass loss (gem-2 s-1)

< 2 X 10"11

2 X IO"10

< 4 x 10-11

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