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Nomenclature:

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B                                          Magnetic induction

Cs, c                                    Speeds of sound, light

cp                                         Specific heat at constant pressure (units m2 s-2 K-1)

D = 2R                                Pipe diameter

F                                          Imposed force

f                                           Vibration frequency

g                                          Gravitational acceleration

H, L                                     Vertical, horizontal length scales

k = pCpK                            Thermal conductivity (units kgm~1 s — 2)

N = (g/H)1/2                        Brunt-Vaisala frequency

R                                         Radius of pipe or channel

r                                           Radius of curvature of pipe or channel

tl                                        Larmor radius

T                                          Temperature

V                                         Characteristic flow velocity

VA = B/(flop)1/2                  Alfven speed

dT

ol                                       Newton's-law heat coefficient, k---------- = a AT

dx

/3                                         Volumetric expansion coefficient, dV/V = (3dT

r                                           Bulk modulus (units kgm-1 s-2)

AR, AV, Ap, AT                 Imposed differences in two radii, velocities,

pressures, or temperatures

e                                          Surface emissivity

f]                                          Electrical resistivity

k, T>                                    Thermal, molecular diffusivities (units m2s_1)

A                                          Latitude of point on earth's surface

A                                         Collisional mean free path

fi = pv                                 Viscosity

po                                        Permeability of free space

v                                          Kinematic viscosity (units m2s_1)

p                                          Mass density of fluid medium

p'                                         Mass density of bubble, droplet, or moving object

X                                         Surface tension (units kgs-2)

a                                          Stefan-Boltzmann constant

Solid-body rotational angular velocity

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